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  • br Conclusion br In conclusion selenium nanoparticles SeNPs were biosynthesized


    4. Conclusion
    In conclusion, selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were biosynthesized and were characterized by means of UV–Vis ATPγS spectroscopic technique. A decrease in the absorption intensity was observed with the gradual increase in time, which referred the consumption of protein during the reduction of SeO32− to Se0. From XRD studies, the calculated average crystalline size of the synthesized selenium nanoparticles was found to be 88.89 nm which was in agreement with the TEM analysis while the SAED pattern has revealed hexagonal ring structure with diffraction ring pattern.MTT assay was carried out to investigate the radio-sensitizing effect of selenium nanoparticles under the X-ray in-fluence against cancer as well as healthy cell lines. SeNPs showed po-tent cytotoxicity effect in cancer cells whereas it showed relatively less toxic effect in normal healthy cells. However, caspase-3 activity was even more elevated when subjected to X-ray exposure than in the ab-sence. Also, the experimental findings specified the involvement of SeNPs in the caspase-3 activation and downstream target that might considerably obstruct the cancer cell proliferation, thus suggesting apoptosis as a chief mechanism of death. These results have evidently signified the cytotoxic potential of SeNPs with the combination of X-ray in the treatment of lung cancer cell lines.
    Fig. 7. Live/dead assay of cancer cells upon treated with SeNPs with and without X-ray irradiation (A). Fluorescence microscopic images of cancer cells corre-sponding to live and dead cells (B).
    This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (81572881).
    [1] W. Zhanga, Z. Chena, H. Liua, L. Zhangb, P. Gaoa, D. Li, Biosynthesis and structural characteristics of selenium nanoparticles by Pseudomonasalcaliphila, Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces 88 (2011) 196–202.
    fungus for extracellular synthesis of small selenium nanoparticles, Int. J. Nanomed.
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, B: Biology
    journal homepage:
    Biosynthesis of sorafenib coated graphene nanosheets for the treatment of T gastric cancer in patients in nursing care
    Xiaoyue Xua, Xiaoyu Tangb, Xiaoxu Wuc, Xiufang Fenga,
    a The Third Department of Tumor Surgery, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, People's Republic of China b Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, People's Republic of China c The Department of Radiology, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, People's Republic of China
    Graphene oxide
    Gastric cancer 
    Sorafenib (SRF) is a well-known tyrosine kinase inhibiting anticancer drug which iseffectual against multiple carcinomas especially gastric cancers by targeting the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk cascade pathway and blocking the tumor cell proliferation. In the present work, we have reduced graphene oxide (GO) in presence of sorafenib using ascorbic as green reducing agent for the treatment of gastric cancers. Sorafenib reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) were obtained with a transparent and smoothmorphology. The drug loaded SRGO has presented sig-nificant cytotoxic effect against SGC7901 cancer cells when compared to that of the free SRF and blank NPs in the equivalent concentrations. Additionally, from the Hoechst 33382 staining study it was evident that the cells in untreated groups remained intact with its round shape and intact nuclei while the SRGO treated cells have shown a cell transformation with apoptosis of gastric cancer cell lines. Based on these results, we can conclude that SRGO might extend an enormous prospective in the treatment of gastric cancers.
    1. Introduction
    In the recent times, graphene has significant potential with wide range of biomedical applications [1]. Graphene oxide (GO) comprises of carbon monolayer with epoxide and hydroxyl functional groups on the accessible sides and carboxylic atoms packed to formdense honey comb lattice structure. GO formed due to oxidative exfoliation of gra-phite consist huge amounts of residual carboxylic acid, hydroxide groups, and epoxide which could affect the hydrophilicity along with other functional and structural properties of nonmaterial. Therefore, reduction of these residual functional groups facilitates in the en-hancement of several properties of GO. Among various properties that contribute towards biocompatibility like size, number of layers, shape, charge on surface of nanomaterials, surface chemistry plays a vital role in the determination of biocompatibility and controlling behaviour of nanomaterials within the biological systems [2]. However, pristine GO was found to possess immense significance in the formation of anti-microbial surfaces in solar cells [3,4].